- Tritrichomonas muris alters T cell homeostasis
Escalante et al. show that a highly prevalent mouse intestinal protozoa, Tritrichomonas muris, was found to be a confounding factor in murine colitis. Mice infected with this parasite had elevated baseline levels of Th1 cytokines and developed exacerbated Th1-mediated disease.
- Metronomic chemotherapy and ELR chemokines
Chan et al. report that treatment of tumor-bearing mice with low-dose metronomic chemotherapy prevents stromal secretion of ELR+ chemokines and induction of tumor-initiating cells usually observed with administration of drugs at maximum tolerated dose.
- What does PD-L1 positive or negative mean?
Ribas and Hu-Lieskovan show that different processes may lead to the expression of PD-L1 on cancer cells, and each one of them may have a different meaning to interpret the results of clinical trials with anti–PD-1/L1 antibodies.
- Dampened immunity to vaginal RNA virus exposure
Khan et al. demonstrate that the lower female reproductive tract is exceptionally vulnerable to infection by LCMV and Zika virus, as intravaginal exposure to these RNA viral pathogens elicits a dampened antiviral immune response.
- Modeling synovial sarcoma metastasis in the mouse
Barrott et al. show that PI3′-lipid signaling potentiates metastasis in a genetically engineered mouse model of synovial sarcomagenesis and drives cancer cells to express CSF1, recruiting macrophages to the tumor microenvironment.
- Immunity lost in translocation
Baron et al. show that mycolactone, an immunosuppressive macrolide produced by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, operates by targeting the Sec61 translocon. This identifies the most potent Sec61 inhibitor reported to date and the potential of inhibiting Sec61 for immune modulation.
- Interneuron-derived Netrin-4 is a pain inducer
Hayano et al. show that Netrin-4, which is originally identified as an axon guidance molecule, is capable of enhancing sensitivity to sensory input and can contribute to neuropathic pain. The findings provide evidence for a previously unknown pain-inducing signal from spinal cord interneurons.
- IRF2 prevents lethal viral neuroinvasion
Li et al. describe a novel role for IRF2, previously known as a negative regulator of type I IFN signaling, in protection of mice from lethal viral neuroinvasion by facilitating the proper localization of B cells and antibodies to the central nervous system.
- RAB43 facilitates cross-presentation
RAB43 is a vesicular transport protein unique to CD8α+ DCs that is localized to the Golgi. Kretzer et al. show that RAB43 is necessary for optimal cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens by CD8α+ DCs in vitro and in vivo but that it is dispensable for cross-presentation by in vitro monocyte-derived DCs.
- HDAC7 is essential for B cell development
The histone deacetylase HDAC7 interacts with and represses myeloid and T cell genes in pro–B cells. HDAC7 deletion blocks early B cell development and results in severe lymphopenia.