- HIV: Persistence through division
A long-lived latent reservoir for HIV-1 persists in CD4+ T cells despite antiretroviral therapy and is the major barrier to cure. In this issue of JEM, Hosmane et al. show that T cell proliferation could explain the long-term persistence of this reservoir.
- Genomic dissection of the genus Homo
Quach and Quintana-Murci review the genetic and evolutionary history of our species, including how natural selection has shaped human genome diversity, and discuss the added value of population and functional genomic approaches in settings relevant to immunity and infection.
- Plasma cell differentiation in the germinal center
Kräutler et al. show that differentiation of antibody-producing plasma cells from germinal center (GC) B cell precursors is initiated by direct contact with high-affinity antigen within the GC but completed by separate signals delivered by collaborating, GC-resident T follicular helper cells.
- BATF2-dependent host defense against T. cruzi
Kitada et al. demonstrate that transcription factor BATF2 induced by IFN-γ in macrophages and dendritic cells prevents Th17-mediated multiorgan pathology through suppression of IL-23 production during T. cruzi infection.
- TLR4 signals in B cells via BCR and SYK
Schweighoffer et al. demonstrate that in B cells, TLR4 transduces signals through two distinct pathways: one via the BCR to the activation of SYK, ERK, and AKT and the other via MYD88 to the activation of NF-κB.
- The functions of c-Fos in hepatocarcinogenesis
Hepatocellular cancers arise in a background of liver damage and inflammation. Bakiri et al. describe the function of the transcription factor c-Fos/AP-1 using mouse models and human data. c-Fos affects cholesterol and bile acid metabolism and induces DNA damage and inflammation, thus promoting liver cancer.
- RUNX1 oncogenic function in AML
Behrens et al. establish the interplay of activated FLT3 receptor and the phosphorylated RUNX1 transcription factor in uncoupling proliferation and differentiation signals in acute leukemia. These findings demonstrate that RUNX1 is a viable therapeutic target in FLT3-mutated AML.
- Conserved Ikaros-regulated genes in B-ALL
Analysis of mouse and human B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies evolutionarily conserved targets of the tumor-suppressive transcription factor IKAROS, implicating CTNND1 in leukemia maintenance.