- Anti-tau scFvs decrease tau accumulation in vivo
Ising et al. report expression of anti-tau scFvs in the brain of a mouse model of tauopathy by AAV-mediated gene transfer. Treated mice show markedly decreased tau hyperphosphorylation and detergent-soluble tau species. Therefore, the Fc domain is not required to mediate effects in tauopathy.
- Astrocyte reactivity protects function in glaucoma
Sun et al. demonstrate that STAT3 signaling is important for reactive astrocyte remodeling within the injured optic nerve head. Importantly, this reactivity preserves visual function after various optic nerve injuries, including experimental glaucoma.
- Cohesin regulates neuronal network formation
Cohesin is associated with the developmental disorder Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Fujita et al. show that low levels of cohesin expression in the developing brain result in changes in gene expression that in turn lead to a specific and abnormal neuronal and behavioral phenotype.
- Inflammasome in glial cells in the cuprizone model
Lysophosphatidylcholine is associated with neurodegeneration and demyelination. Freeman et al. demonstrate that lysophosphatidylcholine triggers NLRP3- and NLRC4-dependent inflammasome activation, and in a synergistic fashion, NLRP3 and NLRC4 contribute to a cuprizone-induced demyelination model in vivo.
- MINK1 suppresses Th17 cell differentiation
Fu et al. demonstrate that reactive oxygen species (ROS)–sensing molecule misshapen/NIK-related kinase 1 (MINK1) can specifically suppress Th 17 cell differentiation through direct phosphorylation of SMAD2. This study provides the mechanism of how ROS limit inflammatory response and unveils the potential health risk of antioxidant supplementation.
- Immune responses to Bacillus anthracis spore RNA
Many pathogenic bacterial species produce spores, which may play an important role in their interaction with the host. Choo et al. show that the spores of Bacillus anthracis, the etiologic agent of anthrax, induce type I IFN signaling and disrupt host immune defense via TLR-stimulating RNA.
- Evading influenza virus restriction factor MxA
Deeg et al. show a novel line of transgenic mice expressing restriction factor MxA exhibits robust resistance to influenza viruses of avian but not human origin. In vivo evasion of MxA is mediated by distinct amino acids in the nucleoprotein of human influenza viruses.
- Antigen targeting of Fcγ receptors
Lehmann et al. targeted antigens to Fcγ receptors expressed on various antigen-presenting cells. Induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were solely dependent on CD11b+ and CD8+ DC subsets, respectively, but independent of receptor intrinsic ITAM or ITIM signaling domains.
- Neutrophil MPO protects against LPS
Reber et al. reveal a protective function for neutrophils after lethal endotoxin challenge using a novel mouse model of diphtheria toxin–inducible neutropenia. Neutrophil expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) is necessary for this protection. These findings imply that neutrophils protect the host by limiting the extent of LPS-induced pathology in an MPO-dependent manner.
- Cullin 3 is required for STAT3 phosphorylation
Li et al. show that OGT-mediated STAT3 O-GlcNAcylation, which is modulated by CUL3-Nrf2 signaling, negatively regulates STAT3 phosphorylation and IL-10 production in macrophages and exacerbates experimental colitis and colitis-associated cancer.