- Defective ATG16L1-mediated removal of IRE1α drives Crohn’s disease–like ileitis
Tschurtschenthaler et al. report a Crohn’s disease–like ileitis mediated by IRE1α that develops in mice with intestinal-epithelial Atg16l1 deletion when they age. The authors propose a selective autophagy process involved in the removal of IRE1α clusters during ER stress.
- Antibody-secreting plasma cells persist for decades in human intestine
This study provides a definite answer to the long-standing question concerning the longevity of the secretory antibody response. Landsverk et al. show that antigenic attrition affects a minor plasma cell subset and that distinct plasma cells are likely maintained for life in the human small intestine.
- Characterization of meningeal type 2 innate lymphocytes and their response to CNS injury
Immune responses to central nervous system (CNS) injuries are multifaceted, but their contributions are incompletely understood. Here, Gadani et al. describe type 2 innate lymphocytes as novel meningeal-resident cells, characterizing their transcriptional profile and response to CNS injury.
- CNS-targeted autoimmunity leads to increased influenza mortality in mice
Glenn et al. show that EAE induction impairs influenza immune responses, worsens influenza pathology, and is marked by early EAE-induced recruitment of suppressive myeloid cells to the lungs.
- Strong adhesion by regulatory T cells induces dendritic cell cytoskeletal polarization and contact-dependent lethargy
Chen et al. show that regulatory T cells adhere to dendritic cells (DCs) with high binding forces. This strong binding causes cytoskeletal polarization in the latter, which limits DCs’s ability to form productive engagement with other antigen-specific T cells.
- Class II MHC–independent suppressive adhesion of dendritic cells by regulatory T cells in vivo
Yan et al. demonstrate that in vivo T reg cells can form prolonged contacts with dendritic cells (DCs) in an MHC-independent manner and suppress the ability of the same DCs to contemporaneously engage in stable interactions with and activate conventional T cells.
- Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 promotes age-related organ fibrosis
Peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) citrullinates proteins. In neutrophils, it causes chromatin decondensation and release of NETs, which are injurious. Martinod et al. show in this study that NETs promote fibrosis in a cardiac model and that PAD4-deficient mice have reduced age-related organ fibrosis.
- CD4+ T cell effector commitment coupled to self-renewal by asymmetric cell divisions
Nish et al. report that production of a fully committed Th1 effector cell occurs during an asymmetric cell division wherein the other daughter cell remains memory cell–like. Unequal transmission of metabolic signaling may be the driver of this regenerative behavior.
- Deubiquitinase USP13 maintains glioblastoma stem cells by antagonizing FBXL14-mediated Myc ubiquitination
Fang et al. show that the deubiquitinase USP13 stabilizes c-Myc in glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) by counteracting FBXL14-mediated Myc ubiquitination. c-Myc stabilization maintains GSC self-renewal and tumorigenic potential.