- Soluble TREM2 induces inflammatory responses and enhances microglial survival
Zhong et al. describe two novel roles for soluble TREM2 (sTREM2) in regulation of proinflammatory responses and prevention of cellular apoptosis in microglia.
- Tissue reservoirs of antiviral T cell immunity in persistent human CMV infection
Using a novel human organ donor tissue resource, Gordon et al. reveal how CMV-specific T cells are distributed and function in multiple sites in the context of viral persistence, revealing new insights into immune control of CMV in the body.
- Suppression of lethal autoimmunity by regulatory T cells with a single TCR specificity
Levine et al. investigate the extent to which regulatory T cells with either a monoclonal T cell receptor (TCR) or random TCR repertoire in place of their developmentally selected specificities maintain TCR-dependent gene expression and immunosuppressive function.
- p38 inhibition provides anti–DNA virus immunity by regulation of USP21 phosphorylation and STING activation
Chen et al. show that USP21 is a deubiquitinating enzyme for the adaptor protein STING and that it negatively regulates the DNA virus–induced production of type I interferons. HSV-1 infection recruited USP21 to STING at a late stage by p38-mediated phosphorylation of USP21 at Ser538.
- Innate immunity to RNA virus is regulated by temporal and reversible sumoylation of RIG-I and MDA5
Hu et al. show that sumoylation of the viral RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5 by TRIM38 in uninfected and early-infected cells, and their desumoylation by SENP2 in the late phase of infection, ensure efficient innate immune responses to RNA viruses and their timely termination upon resolution of infection.
- ZMPSTE24 defends against influenza and other pathogenic viruses
Fu et al. show that ZMPSTE24 is a broad-spectrum antiviral protein that inhibits entry of selected fusogenic viruses by functioning as an effector in the IFITM pathway. ZMPSTE24 protease activity is dispensable for viral restriction. In mice, ZMPSTE24 deficiency increases susceptibility to influenza infection.
- Epithelial Fli1 deficiency drives systemic autoimmunity and fibrosis: Possible roles in scleroderma
Takahashi et al. find that epithelial cell–conditional knockdown of transcription factor Fli1 in mice drives systemic autoimmunity derived from thymic defects as well as selective tissue fibrosis in the skin and esophagus, mimicking human scleroderma. This study unravels the unanswered question about the origin of autoimmunity and selective tissue fibrosis in this disease.
- Dissection of SAP-dependent and SAP-independent SLAM family signaling in NKT cell development and humoral immunity
Chen et al. dissect SAP-dependent and SAP-independent SLAM family signaling in the regulation of NKT cell development and follicular T helper cell differentiation using a novel mouse model lacking all seven SLAM family receptors.
- 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesized in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell survival
Lv et al. show that in mice, 5-HT can be synthesized in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros and acts as a novel endogenous regulator of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) development. The promoting effect of 5-HT on the survival of HSPCs in the intraaortic hematopoietic cluster is mediated through Htr5a-AKT-Foxo1 signaling.