Table 1. Characteristics of the study participants
 CharacteristicsRecovered JE patientsHealthy, JEV NAb-positive Indian controlsHealthy, JEV NAb-negative Indian controlsUK cohort
n39351613
Median age (range)13 (1–25)26 (7–55)25 (22–55)26 (23–60)
Sex22 M, 17 F24 M, 11 F10 M, 6 F7 M, 6 F
Years since JE6 (0.5–12)NANANA
Number tested for DENV NAb141438
DENV NAb positive (any serotype)141433
Dengue illness0304
Residence in a JE-endemic areaAllAllAll1
Travel to a JE-endemic areaNANANA8
JE vaccine0006a
Liverpool outcome score524NANANA
45
37
23

The Liverpool outcome score is a five-point score grading recovery from encephalitis in children and adolescents (Lewthwaite et al., 2010a). 5, full recovery; 4, minor disability; 3, moderate disability; 2, severe disability; 1, death (not applicable here).

  • a Six subjects in the UK cohort received the JE vaccine, four before and two during the study period.