Table I.

Characteristics and outcomes in the 167 trauma patients and 37 healthy control subjects

ParameterControls (n = 37)Total cohort (n = 167)Uncomplicated recovery patient (<5 d; n = 55)Complicated recovery patient (14 d, no recovery by 28 d, or death; n = 41)Probability
Demographics
Age (yr)30 ± 834 ± 1 (33, 25–44)33 ± 2 (32, 21–43)34 ± 2 (34, 26–42)P = 0.466a
Sex (male/female)22/15106/6130/2530/11P = 0.090c
APACHE IIND27.3 ± 0.5 (28, 24–32)24.4 ± 0.8 (25, 21–29)29.4 ± 0.8 (29, 26–33)P < 0.001a
Maximum abbreviated injury scale (AIS)ND4.0 ± 0.1 (4, 3–5)3.8 ± 0.1 (4, 3–5)4.2 ± 0.1 (4, 4–5)P = 0.050b
Head AISND3.0 ± 0.1 (3, 2–4)2.9 ± 0.3 (3, 2–4)3.1 ± 0.3 (3, 2–4)P = 0.659b
Face/neck AISND1.7 ± 0.1 (2, 1–2)1.6 ± 0.2 (2, 1–2)1.6 ± 0.2 (1, 1–2)P = 0.586b
Thorax AISND3.4 ± 0.1 (3, 3–4)3.1 ± 0.2 (3, 3–4)3.3 ± 0.2 (3, 3–4)P = 0.497b
Abdomen AISND3.2 ± 0.1 (3, 2–4)3.4 ± 0.2 (4, 2–4)3.6 ± 0.2 (4, 3–4)P = 0.561b
Spine AISND2.1 ± 0.1 (2)2.0 ± 0.0 (2)2.0 ± 0.0 (2)P = 1.000b
Upper extremity/lower extremity AISND3.3 ± 0.1 (3, 3–4)3.1 ± 0.2 (3)3.4 ± 0.2 (3, 3–5)P = 0.233b
ISSND31.3 ± 1.0 (33, 22–41)26.2 ± 1.8 (24, 17–35)35.7 ± 2.0 (38, 27–42)P < 0.001a
New ISSND36.3 ± 1.0 (34, 27–43)32.6 ± 1.8 (29, 22–40)39.8 ± 1.9 (41, 29–44)P = 0.004b
Total transfusion (ml) administered within the fist 24 h02,425 ± 158 (1,900, 1,050–3,000)1,705 ± 172 (1,400, 700–2,229)2,952 ± 423 (2,150, 1,050–3,500)P = 0.005b
Total crystalloid (ml) administered within the fist 24 h012,891 ± 557 (10,800, 8,276–15,800)10,544 ± 765 (9,070, 7,409–12,163)15,226 ± 1,530 (12,935, 8,728–18,683)P = 0.003b
Worst base deficitND−9.8 ± 0.4 (−9.1, −12.0 to −6.4)−9.2 ± 0.4 (−8.9, −11.6 to −6.4)−10.6 ± 0.8 (−10.3, −13.8 to −6.0)P = 0.133a
Lowest systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)ND89.4 ± 1.5 (86, 78–103)92.3 ± 3.0 (88, 80–108)86.6 ± 3.0 (84, 77–97)P = 0.121b
Outcomes
SurvivalND96% (160/7)100%83% (34/7)NA
Maximum modified Marshall scoreND5.5 ± 0.2 (5, 3–7)3.0 ± 0.1 (3, 2–4)8.8 ± 0.4 (8, 7–10)NA
Hospital length of stay (d)024.8 ± 1.4 (21, 12–32)15.2 ± 1.7 (12, 9–18)35.8 ± 3.6 (30, 23–42)NA
Intensive care unit length of stay (d)013.0 ± 0.9 (9, 5–18)4.8 ± 0.4 (5, 3–6)25.1 ± 2.3 (21, 18–30)NA
Time to recovery (d)010.2 ± 0.6 (7, 4–15)2.9 ± 0.1 (3, 2–4)22.0 ± 0.9 (20, 18–28)NA
Integral of MOF over days046.8 ± 3.4 (32, 14–69)10.8 ± 0.9 (11, 6–15)97.0 ± 6.6 (87, 67–113)NA
Complications
Noninfectious complications051.5% (86/81)5.5% (3/52)90.2% (37/4)P < 0.001c
Nosocomial infections054.5% (91/76)20.0% (11/44)85.4% (35/6)P < 0.001c
Surgical site infections022.2% (37/130)7.3% (4/51)41.5% (17/24)P < 0.001c
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (cases/1,000 ICU days)024.03.825.3P = 0.030d
  • MOF, multiple organ failure; NA, not applicable. Values represent the mean ± SEM, with median and middle quartiles indicated in parentheses. Significance was designated at the P < 0.05 level of confidence.

  • a Data were analyzed by the Student’s t test.

  • b Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney signed rank test.

  • c Data were analyzed by the Fisher’s exact text.

  • d Data were analyzed by the exact binomial test.