Table I.

Unsuccessful attempts at generating anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in Neu5Gc-deficient mice

Unsuccessful attemptData/comments
Feeding regular mouse chowNormal mouse chow diet provides ∼1 mg/kg/day Neu5Gc (>5 times the amount found in Western diets; Tangvoranuntakul et al., 2003).
Adding free Neu5Gc to drinking waterMaximum exposure 1 mg/ml in drinking water for 12 wk.
Feeding cow’s milkCow’s milk contains ∼8 µg/g total Neu5Gc (Tangvoranuntakul et al., 2003). Gavaged 250 µl 5 d/wk for 4 wk.
Feeding goat cheeseRich in Neu5Gc-containing glycolipids, 39.9 µg/g total Neu5Gc (Tangvoranuntakul et al., 2003)
Feeding mucinVery rich in Neu5Gc. Mixed in with regular mouse chow.
Breastfeeding/fostering by WT femalesWT mouse breast milk contains Neu5Gc. Simulates infant exposure to cow’s milk or cow’s milk-based formula.
In utero exposure of Cmah-null pups to Neu5Gc positive Cmah+/− motherCmah-null mice born loaded with Neu5Gc, which clears within weeks. Simulates infant/fetal exposure to Neu5Gc through the mother’s diet.