Table I.

AxV Biases towards Inflammation the Phagocytic Clearance of ITCs

MacrophagesDendritic cells
MediumAxVMediumAxV
CytokinesAlonew/ ITCAlonew/ ITCAlonew/ ITCAlonew/ ITC
pg/mlpg/mlpg/mlpg/mlpg/mlpg/mlpg/mlpg/ml
TNF-α125 ± 15335 ± 30117 ± 24978 ± 48a267 ± 137392 ± 79245 ± 121426 ± 78
IL-1β21 ± 544 ± 714 ± 1322 ± 85b10 ± 446 ± 48 ± 347 ± 3
IL-1088 ± 18105 ± 30129 ± 1190 ± 842 ± 151 ± 842 ± 243 ± 4
TGF-β82 ± 10505 ± 54105 ± 11193 ± 26b230 ± 72266 ± 76238 ± 93261 ± 65
  • a P < 0.005.

  • b P < 0.01.

  • We retrieved the supernatants of thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal Mϕ or bone marrow–derived DCs challenged for 24 h with ITC coupled or not (medium) with chicken AxV (ITC:phagocyte ratio of 5:1). The supernatants were also retrieved from cells incubated for 24 h in medium (alone) with or without chicken AxV. The release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, and TGF-β was assessed by ELISA as described in the Materials and Methods. Results are expressed as pg/ml (mean ± SD). Results obtained with AxV-coupled ITC were compared with results obtained with ITC using two-tailed Student's t test.