Zinc metallopeptidase STE24 (ZMPSTE24) is a transmembrane metalloprotease whose catalytic activity is critical for processing lamin A on the inner nuclear membrane and clearing clogged translocons on the endoplasmic reticulum. We now report ZMPSTE24 is a virus-specific effector that restricts enveloped RNA and DNA viruses, including influenza A, Zika, Ebola, Sindbis, vesicular stomatitis, cowpox, and vaccinia, but not murine leukemia or adenovirus. ZMPSTE24-mediated antiviral action is independent of protease activity. Coimmunoprecipitation studies indicate ZMPSTE24 can complex with proteins of the interferon-induced transmembrane protein (IFITM) family. IFITM proteins impede viral entry, and ZMPSTE24 expression is necessary for IFITM antiviral activity. In vivo studies demonstrate ZMPSTE24-deficient mice display higher viral burdens, enhanced cytokine production, and increased mortality after influenza infection. Collectively, these findings identify ZMPSTE24 as an intrinsic broad-spectrum antiviral protein and provide insights into antiviral defense mechanisms.
- Submitted: 5 August 2016
- Revision received 10 November 2016
- Accepted: 25 January 2017
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