The RLTPR cytosolic protein, also known as CARMIL2, is essential for CD28 co-stimulation in mice, but its importance in human T cells and mode of action remain elusive. Here, using affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry analysis, we showed that RLTPR acts as a scaffold, bridging CD28 to the CARD11/CARMA1 cytosolic adaptor and to the NF-κB signaling pathway, and identified proteins not found before within the CD28 signaling pathway. We further demonstrated that RLTPR is essential for CD28 co-stimulation in human T cells and that its noncanonical pleckstrin-homology domain, leucine-rich repeat domain, and proline-rich region were mandatory for that task. Although RLTPR is thought to function as an actin-uncapping protein, this property was dispensable for CD28 co-stimulation in both mouse and human. Our findings suggest that the scaffolding role of RLTPR predominates during CD28 co-stimulation and underpins the similar function of RLTPR in human and mouse T cells. Along that line, the lack of functional RLTPR molecules impeded the differentiation toward Th1 and Th17 fates of both human and mouse CD4+ T cells. RLTPR was also expressed in both human and mouse B cells. In the mouse, RLTPR did not play, however, any detectable role in BCR-mediated signaling and T cell-independent B cell responses.
- Submitted: 22 April 2016
- Accepted: 17 August 2016
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