October 2016 | Volume 213, No. 11
Brief Definitive Reports
- The aryl hydrocarbon receptor is required for the maintenance of liver-resident natural killer cells
Sunwoo et al. show that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor is a critical regulator of liver natural killer cell homeostasis.
- Progressive alterations in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors underlie lymphoid cell loss in aging
Age-related lymphoid cell decline is due to a cell-autonomous progressive loss of LMPP/MPP4 cells associated with increased cycling and differentiation potential toward the myeloid lineage.
- M-CSF improves protection against bacterial and fungal infections after hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell transplantation
Sieweke and colleagues show that M-CSF/CSF-1 treatment after myeloablation and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell transplantation results in increased production of mature myeloid donor cells and protects against opportunistic pathogens.
- IL-6 promotes the differentiation of a subset of naive CD8+ T cells into IL-21–producing B helper CD8+ T cells
IL-6 promotes the differentiation of a subset of naïve CD8+ T cells into IL-21–producing B helper CD8+ T cells.
- CXCR4 identifies transitional bone marrow premonocytes that replenish the mature monocyte pool for peripheral responses
CXCR4 identifies an immobilized BM precursor (i.e., transitional premonocyte [TpMo]) that proliferates and replenishes mature Ly6Chi monocytes in mice and humans. Upon entering the circulation, CXCR4 governs monocyte margination in the lung vasculature.
- Tumor macrophages are pivotal constructors of tumor collagenous matrix
Tumor-associated macrophages are pivotal constructors of the tumoral ECM structure and molecular composition. In particular, they orchestrate the buildup of the tumorigenic collagenous ECM niche.
- Dpy30 is critical for maintaining the identity and function of adult hematopoietic stem cells
Jiang et al. generated Dpy30 conditional knockout mice to determine what role Dpy30 and its associated H3K4 methylation may play in the fate determination of tissue-specific stem cells such as HSCs.
- Complement pathway amplifies caspase-11–dependent cell death and endotoxin-induced sepsis severity
Caspase-11–dependent cell death is controlled by carboxypeptidase B1 by inducing the cleavage of C3 and activation of C3aR.
- NFATC3 promotes IRF7 transcriptional activity in plasmacytoid dendritic cells
The transcription factor NFATC3 binds to IRF7 and to type 1 IFN promoters, regulating IRF7-mediated IFN expression in pDCs.
- Psoriatic T cells recognize neolipid antigens generated by mast cell phospholipase delivered by exosomes and presented by CD1a
In psoriasis, IFN-α–stimulated mast cells release exosomes containing cytoplasmic PLA2 that are transferred to CD1a-expressing cells and generate neolipid antigens which induce the production of IL-22 and IL-17A by CD1a-reactive T cells.
- Dual T cell– and B cell–intrinsic deficiency in humans with biallelic RLTPR mutations
In two complementary papers, Casanova, Malissen, and collaborators report the discovery of human RLTPR deficiency, the first primary immunodeficiency of the human CD28 pathway in T cells. Together, the two studies highlight the important and largely (but not completely) overlapping roles of RLTPR in T and B cells of humans and mice.
- The scaffolding function of the RLTPR protein explains its essential role for CD28 co-stimulation in mouse and human T cells
In two complementary papers, Casanova, Malissen, and collaborators report the discovery of human RLTPR deficiency, the first primary immunodeficiency of the human CD28 pathway in T cells. Together, the two studies elucidate the largely (but not completely) overlapping roles of RLTPR in CD28 signaling in T and B cells of humans and mice.
- UNG protects B cells from AID-induced telomere loss
Verdun and colleagues find that the uracil-DNA glycosylase UNG, which promotes DNA breaks in the immunoglobulin genes during class switch recombination and is required for AID-induced chromosomal translocations, protects telomeres from AID-induced DNA damage and subsequent dysfunction.
- Calorie restriction protects against experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice
Liu and collaborators show that calorie restriction limits the severity of abdominal aortic aneurysms in mice by modulating the activity of the energy sensor SIRT1 in vascular smooth muscle cells.
- Protein C receptor (PROCR) is a negative regulator of Th17 pathogenicity
Kishi et al. find that protein C receptor (PROCR) is specifically expressed on the surface of Th17 cells and its loss exacerbates encephalitogenic Th17 cell responses.
- Elp3 links tRNA modification to IRES-dependent translation of LEF1 to sustain metastasis in breast cancer
Delaunay et al. reveal the role of U34 tRNA-modifying enzymes in the regulation of specific mRNA translation to support cell invasion and metastasis.