Both animal model and human studies indicate that commensal bacteria may modify type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbes could trigger or protect from diabetes are not fully understood, especially the interaction of commensal bacteria with pathogenic CD8 T cells. In this study, using islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit–related protein (IGRP)–reactive CD8 T cell receptor NY8.3 transgenic nonobese diabetic mice, we demonstrated that MyD88 strongly modulates CD8+ T cell–mediated T1D development via the gut microbiota. Some microbial protein peptides share significant homology with IGRP. Both the microbial peptide mimic of Fusobacteria and the bacteria directly activate IGRP-specific NY8.3 T cells and promote diabetes development. Thus, we provide evidence of molecular mimicry between microbial antigens and an islet autoantigen and a novel mechanism by which the diabetogenicity of CD8+ T cells can be regulated by innate immunity and the gut microbiota.
- Submitted: 13 April 2016
- Accepted: 5 August 2016
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