July 2014 | Volume 211, No. 8
- Fibroblast heterogeneity in the cancer wound
Dr. Tuveson and colleagues provide a comprehensive review on the fundamental role of cancer-associated fibroblasts in shaping the tumor microenvironment and promoting tumor initiation and progression.
Brief Definitive Report
- Differential roles of microglia and monocytes in the inflamed central nervous system
Phagocytic monocyte-derived macrophages associate with the nodes of Ranvier and initiate demyelination while microglia clear debris and display a suppressed metabolic gene signature in EAE.
- Acid sphingomyelinase modulates the autophagic process by controlling lysosomal biogenesis in Alzheimer’s disease
Acid sphingomyelinase activity is increased in brain and plasma of mice and patients with Alzheimer’s disease and its inhibition represents a potential new therapeutic intervention for this disease.
- CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes support colitis-associated innate lymphoid cell production of IL-22
Intestinal CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes regulate ILC3 in vivo in response to colitis associated microbial signals.
- A molecular basis underpinning the T cell receptor heterogeneity of mucosal-associated invariant T cells
A novel MAIT cell antagonist, Ac-6-FP, stabilizes MR1 and can inhibit MAIT cell activation with the flexible TCR β-chain serving to fine-tune the affinity of the TCR for antigen-MR1 complexes.
- MR1-restricted MAIT cells display ligand discrimination and pathogen selectivity through distinct T cell receptor usage
MAIT cells can discriminate between pathogen-derived ligands in a clonotype-dependent manner, and the TCR repertoire is distinct within individuals, indicating that the MAIT cell repertoire is shaped by prior microbial exposure.
- Trans-nodal migration of resident dendritic cells into medullary interfollicular regions initiates immunity to influenza vaccine
Resident lymph node DCs rapidly locate viral influenza antigen to drive early activation of T cells, resulting in germinal center formation and B cell memory.
- ETO family protein Mtg16 regulates the balance of dendritic cell subsets by repressing Id2
Transcriptional cofactor of the ETO family Mtg16 promotes pDCs and restricts cDC differentiation in part by repressing Id2.
- Prolonged antigen presentation by immune complex–binding dendritic cells programs the proliferative capacity of memory CD8 T cells
Antibodies can regulate the quality and functionality of a subset of antiviral CD8+ T cell memory responses to influenza by promoting sustained DC antigen presentation during the contraction phase of primary responses.
- Indigenous enteric eosinophils control DCs to initiate a primary Th2 immune response in vivo
Eosinophil degranulation of peroxidase promotes DC activation and mobilization from the intestine to LNs to induce Th2 immunity and food allergy.
- 18-HEPE, an n-3 fatty acid metabolite released by macrophages, prevents pressure overload–induced maladaptive cardiac remodeling
Macrophage-derived 18-HEPE protects mice from cardiac remodeling by preventing proinflammatory activation of cardiac fibroblasts and subsequent fibrosis.
- TPL2 mediates autoimmune inflammation through activation of the TAK1 axis of IL-17 signaling
TPL2 is required for Th17-mediated neuroinflammation during EAE by regulating the TAK1 signaling axis downstream of the IL-17R in astrocytes.