June 2014 | Volume 211, No. 7
Brief Definitive Reports
- Proteome-wide analysis of HIV-specific naive and memory CD4+ T cells in unexposed blood donors
Healthy, uninfected individuals harbor HIV-specific naive and memory CD4+ T cells, and many memory T cell epitopes are similar in sequence to peptides expressed by natural commensal bacteria, suggesting potential cross-reactivity.
- Leukotriene B4 amplifies eosinophil accumulation in response to nematodes
Rapid eosinophil accumulation around nematode species occurs via leukotriene induction, which is necessary for nematode-induced eosinophil accumulation in the lung.
- Proapoptotic Bim regulates antigen-specific NK cell contraction and the generation of the memory NK cell pool after cytomegalovirus infection
NK cells lacking proapoptotic factor Bim show impaired contraction phase after MCMV infection, leading to impaired memory cell maturation and a less effective responses to viral rechallenge.
- Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 is critical for follicular helper T cell retention in germinal centers
S1PR2 and CXCR5 cooperatively regulate localization of Tfh cells in GCs to support GC responses.
- Neutrophils recruited by chemoattractants in vivo induce microvascular plasma protein leakage through secretion of TNF
Adherent neutrophils responding to chemoattractants release TNF in proximity of endothelial cell junctions to mediate microvascular leakage.
- The linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC) is essential for NLRP3 inflammasome activation
Independent of its known role in NF-κB transcription, the HOIL-1L containing LUBAC is required for assembly and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome via linear ubiquitination of ASC.
- Human CalDAG-GEFI gene (RASGRP2) mutation affects platelet function and causes severe bleeding
First case of a human RASGRP2 mutation affecting Rap1 activation in platelets and causing severe bleeding.
- Frequent disruption of the RB pathway in indolent follicular lymphoma suggests a new combination therapy
CDK4 activation/RB phosphorylation occurs in 50% of indolent but high-risk follicular lymphomas and implies susceptibility to dual CDK4 and BCL2 inhibition.
- Paneth cell extrusion and release of antimicrobial products is directly controlled by immune cell–derived IFN-γ
IFN-γ directly triggers degranulation and death of Paneth cells, which do not respond to microbial stimulation in primary culture.
- DOCK5 functions as a key signaling adaptor that links FcεRI signals to microtubule dynamics during mast cell degranulation
DOCK5 is a key signaling adaptor that orchestrates remodeling of the microtubule network essential for mast cell degranulation.
- Innate lymphoid cells facilitate NK cell development through a lymphotoxin-mediated stromal microenvironment
Lymphotoxin expressed by RORγt+ innate lymphoid cells is critical for natural killer cell development.
- Galectin-9 controls the therapeutic activity of 4-1BB–targeting antibodies
Agonistic anti–4-1BB suppresses autoimmune and allergic inflammation via binding to Galectin-9, which facilitates 4-1BB aggregation, signaling, and functional activity.
- Cardiac fibroblasts mediate IL-17A–driven inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy
IL-17A stimulates cardiac fibroblasts to produce inflammatory mediators critical for the recruitment and differentiation of myeloid cells during inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy.
- CNS myelin induces regulatory functions of DC-SIGN–expressing, antigen-presenting cells via cognate interaction with MOG
Human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is decorated with fucosylated N-glycans that are recognized by DC-SIGN+ DCs and microglia that control immune homeostasis.
- β2 integrin mediates hantavirus-induced release of neutrophil extracellular traps
β2 Integrin–mediated systemic release of neutrophil extracellular traps is a novel mechanism of immunopathology associated with hantavirus infection.