August 2011 | Volume 208, No. 8
Brief Definitive Reports
- Tumor necrosis factor restricts hematopoietic stem cell activity in mice: involvement of two distinct receptors
Both Tnfrsf1a and Tnfrsf1b are needed for the suppressive effect of TNF on murine HSC activity in vitro and in vivo.
- IFN-γ– and IL-10–expressing virus epitope-specific Foxp3+ T reg cells in the central nervous system during encephalomyelitis
Pathogen-specific Foxp3+ T reg cells can be identified on the basis of cytokine production, are detected in naive T cell populations, and exhibit suppressive ability toward effector T cells with the same antigen specificity.
- Abrogation of CD30 and OX40 signals prevents autoimmune disease in FoxP3-deficient mice
FoxP3-deficient mice are rescued from tissue and organ destruction and subsequent lethal autoimmune disease by the combined absence of OX40 and CD30 signals.
- Genomic loss of the putative tumor suppressor gene E2A in human lymphoma
Loss of E2A, observed in more than 70% of patients with Sézary syndrome, which is a subtype of T cell lymphoma, results in altered expression of genes potentially relevant to oncogenesis.
- Pten mediates Myc oncogene dependence in a conditional zebrafish model of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Loss-of-function mutations in pten genes, or expression of a constitutively active version of Akt2, render T-ALL cell survival and disease progression independent of Myc.
- Chemokine receptor CXCR3 facilitates CD8+ T cell differentiation into short-lived effector cells leading to memory degeneration
CXCR3 regulates CD8+ T cell recruitment to sites of inflammation, thus dictating CD8+ T cell contraction and subsequent effector/memory cell fate.
- Inflammatory chemokine receptors regulate CD8+ T cell contraction and memory generation following infection
CD8+ T cells lacking CXCR3 and CCR5 expression have impaired contraction and generate an increased number of memory cells after virus infection.
- Gain-of-function human STAT1 mutations impair IL-17 immunity and underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
Whole-exome sequencing reveals activating STAT1 mutations in some patients with autosomal dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease.
- Epigenetic tethering of AID to the donor switch region during immunoglobulin class switch recombination
A complex of KAP1 and HP1 is needed to tether AID to the H3K9me3-marked donor switch region during CSR.
- The immunoreceptor adapter protein DAP12 suppresses B lymphocyte–driven adaptive immune responses
Human and mouse B cells lacking functional DAP12 are hyperresponsive, and DAP12 works with MAIR-II (CD300d) to negatively regulate B cell activity.
- Flt3L controls the development of radiosensitive dendritic cells in the meninges and choroid plexus of the steady-state mouse brain
As shown by analyses of morphology, gene expression, antigen-presenting function, and Flt3 dependence, the steady-state mouse brain contains a population of DCs that exhibits similarities to splenic DCs and differences from microglia.
- Epithelial transglutaminase 2 is needed for T cell interleukin-17 production and subsequent pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in bleomycin-treated mice
Inhibition of transglutaminase 2 reduces bleomycin-induced epithelial cell release of interleukin 6 in vitro and pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in vivo.
- Cortactin deficiency is associated with reduced neutrophil recruitment but increased vascular permeability in vivo
Cortactin is required for endothelial barrier function and leukocyte recruitment in vivo.