April 2011 | Volume 208, No. 4
Brief Definitive Reports
- Nucleic acid recognition by Toll-like receptors is coupled to stepwise processing by cathepsins and asparagine endopeptidase
TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 are cleaved in the same step-wise manner in all immune cell types examined.
- Clonal selection in xenografted human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia recapitulates gain of malignancy at relapse
Compared with T-ALL diagnosis samples, samples obtained at relapse or after xenograft into immunodeficient mice exhibit additional genomic lesions in oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes; these lesions contribute to leukemia-initiating activity.
- Repression of tumor suppressor miR-451 is essential for NOTCH1-induced oncogenesis in T-ALL
miR-451 represses expression of Myc and acts as a tumor suppressor in murine and human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
- A GATA4-regulated tumor suppressor network represses formation of malignant human astrocytomas
GATA4 loss as a result of promoter hypermethylation or somatic mutation promotes growth and chemotherapy resistance of human astrocytomas.
- Structure of the human activating natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 bound to its tumor cell ligand B7-H6
As revealed by the first crystal structure of a natural cytotoxicity receptor bound to its ligand, NKp30 engages B7-H6 in a manner structurally distinct from that of other CD28 family members.
- G-CSF influences mouse skeletal muscle development and regeneration by stimulating myoblast proliferation
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and its receptor are needed for skeletal muscle development and injury-induced regeneration in mice.
- Viral infection prevents diabetes by inducing regulatory T cells through NKT cell–plasmacytoid dendritic cell interplay
iNKT cell and pDC cross talk prevents type 1 diabetes by inducing T reg cells in the pancreatic lymph node during viral infection.
- Migration of cytotoxic lymphocytes in cell cycle permits local MHC I–dependent control of division at sites of viral infection
Virus-specific cytotoxic CD8+ T cells are in cell cycle as they transit from lymphoid tissues to sites of infection.
- Prostaglandin E2 suppresses the differentiation of retinoic acid–producing dendritic cells in mice and humans
Prostaglandin E2 inhibits the expression of retinal dehydrogenase, thus inhibiting retinoic acid production and the priming of gut-tropic T cells by dendritic cells.
- Herpesvirus entry mediator (TNFRSF14) regulates the persistence of T helper memory cell populations
Blocking HVEM–LIGHT interactions on T cells reduces the persistence of antigen-specific memory T cell populations after secondary expansion through decreased Akt activity and loss of Bcl-2 expression.
- NFATc1 affects mouse splenic B cell function by controlling the calcineurin–NFAT signaling network
Mouse B cells lacking NFATc1 exhibit defective proliferation, survival, isotype class switching, cytokine production, and T cell help.
- Genetic determination of the cellular basis of the sympathetic regulation of bone mass accrual
The sympathetic nervous system regulates bone mass accrual by signaling via CREB and ATF4 in osteoblasts to promote proliferation and RANKL production, respectively.
- Selective stimulation of IL-4 receptor on smooth muscle induces airway hyperresponsiveness in mice
IL-4Rα expression on airway smooth muscle cells is sufficient for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness.