March 2011 | Volume 208, No. 3
- Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species drive proinflammatory cytokine production
Recent work indicates that mitochondrial ROS act via several pathways to elicit proinflammatory cytokines in human and mouse cells.
- The bone marrow stem cell niche grows up: mesenchymal stem cells and macrophages move in
Ehninger and Trumpp discuss the role of monocytes/macrophages and other niche cells in the regulation of HSC mobilization and retention.
Brief Definitive Reports
- The human Tp53 Arg72Pro polymorphism explains different functional prognosis in stroke
Poor prognosis after ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage is linked to a particular polymorphism in the human gene encoding p53.
- The autophagy protein Atg7 is essential for hematopoietic stem cell maintenance
Adult mouse LSK cells unable to undergo autophagy contain fewer HSCs, accumulate mitochondria, and fail to reconstitute lethally irradiated mice.
- Intratumor T helper type 2 cell infiltrate correlates with cancer-associated fibroblast thymic stromal lymphopoietin production and reduced survival in pancreatic cancer
Expression of TSLP in pancreatic cancer correlates with Th2 deviation of antitumor immunity that is associated with decrease of patient survival.
- Thymic stromal lymphopoietin fosters human breast tumor growth by promoting type 2 inflammation
TSLP released from human breast cancer cells promotes OX40L expression on DCs, and these OX40L-expressing DCs drive development of inflammatory Th2 cells which promote breast tumor development.
- Contribution of IL-17–producing γδ T cells to the efficacy of anticancer chemotherapy
IL-17 production by γδ T cells is required for tumor cell infiltration by IFN-γ–producing CD8+ T cells and inhibition of tumor growth in response to anthracyclines.
- Cutaneous immunosurveillance by self-renewing dermal γδ T cells
The dermis contains a novel population of γδT cells that are distinct from epidermal γδT cells and produce IL-17 in response to mycobacterial infection.
- Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species promote production of proinflammatory cytokines and are elevated in TNFR1-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS)
ROS generated by mitochondrial respiration are needed for optimal proinflammatory cytokine production in healthy cells, and are elevated in cells from patients with an autoinflammatory disorder.
- Role for miR-204 in human pulmonary arterial hypertension
Reduced miR-204 expression facilitates the excessive proliferation and apoptosis resistance of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells characteristic of human pulmonary arterial hypertension.
- Eph-B4 prevents venous adaptive remodeling in the adult arterial environment
Stimulation of Eph-B4 prevents adaptive remodeling and preserves venous identity when veins are surgically placed into an arterial environment.
- VISTA, a novel mouse Ig superfamily ligand that negatively regulates T cell responses
VISTA suppresses T cell proliferation and cytokine production and can influence autoimmunity and antitumor responses in mice.
- Dectin-2 mediates Th2 immunity through the generation of cysteinyl leukotrienes
Dectin-2 expression on GM-CSF–cultured bone marrow cells is required for the generation of cysteinyl leukotrienes and Th2 cytokines in response to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae in vivo.
- Herpesvirus telomeric repeats facilitate genomic integration into host telomeres and mobilization of viral DNA during reactivation
Herpesvirus telomeric repeats facilitate virus integration into host telomeres, a process which is required for the establishment of virus latency.
- Liver-expressed Igκ superantigen induces tolerance of polyclonal B cells by clonal deletion not κ to λ receptor editing
Analysis of tolerance in a polyclonal wild-type B cell population demonstrates apoptosis of cells reactive to antigen expressed on liver membrane.