January 2011 | Volume 208, No. 1
Brief Definitive Reports
- Thymus-specific serine protease contributes to the diversification of the functional endogenous CD4 T cell receptor repertoire
Thymus-specific serine protease expression in stromal as well as hematopoietic cells in the thymus is needed for diversification of the endogenous repertoire of TCRs specific for a particular protein antigen.
- Rapid expansion and long-term persistence of elevated NK cell numbers in humans infected with hantavirus
Acute hantavirus infection in humans triggers a rapid expansion and long-term persistence of NK cells.
- Neuroprotection and progenitor cell renewal in the injured adult murine retina requires healing monocyte-derived macrophages
After retinal injury in mice, infiltrating monocyte-derived macrophages preserve retinal ganglion cells and promote retinal progenitor cell renewal.
- Leptin-dependent serotonin control of appetite: temporal specificity, transcriptional regulation, and therapeutic implications
Leptin regulates serotonin synthesis by brainstem neurons in adult mice; serotonin then acts on arcuate neurons to inhibit food intake via Creb.
- Cyclophilin A is an inflammatory mediator that promotes atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E–deficient mice
Cyclophilin A promotes atherosclerosis in part by inducing reactive oxygen species and promoting endothelial cell apoptosis and macrophage recruitment into lesions.
- Human B1 cells in umbilical cord and adult peripheral blood express the novel phenotype CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70−
Human B1 cells consist of CD20+CD27+CD43+CD70− cells bearing a skewed B cell receptor repertoire, and are present in umbilical cord and adult peripheral blood.
- High prevalence of low affinity peptide–MHC II tetramer–negative effectors during polyclonal CD4+ T cell responses
Two-dimensional analysis reveals that peptide–MHC class II tetramers underestimate the frequency of cytokine-producing antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in polyclonal responses.
- A highly tilted binding mode by a self-reactive T cell receptor results in altered engagement of peptide and MHC
A TCR derived from a patient with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis engages the self-peptide myelin basic protein in the context of HLA-DQ1 in a very unusual way.
- Local microbleeding facilitates IL-6– and IL-17–dependent arthritis in the absence of tissue antigen recognition by activated T cells
Local microbleeding induces the accumulation of Th17 cells and the development of IL-17– and IL-6–dependent arthritis in the absence of cognate antigen recognition by CD4+ T cells.
- Microbiota-induced tertiary lymphoid tissues aggravate inflammatory disease in the absence of RORγt and LTi cells
Microbiota drive tertiary lymphoid tissue formation in mice lacking the nuclear hormone receptor Rorγt, leading to intestinal inflammation and wasting disease.
- Acquisition and presentation of follicular dendritic cell–bound antigen by lymph node–resident dendritic cells
Lymph node–resident dendritic cells sample antigen from follicular dendritic cells for presentation to CD8+ T cells.
- CD83 increases MHC II and CD86 on dendritic cells by opposing IL-10–driven MARCH1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation
By opposing IL-10–driven, MARCH1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of MHC class II, CD83 may boost the immunogenicity of dendritic cells.
- Antiviral CD8+ T cell effector activities in situ are regulated by target cell type
In the lungs of mice infected with influenza, the activity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes is modulated by the type of target cell encountered.
- Broadly cross-reactive antibodies dominate the human B cell response against 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection
Although scarce after annual influenza vaccination, B cells producing antibodies capable of neutralizing multiple influenza strains are abundant in humans infected with pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza.