December 2010 | Volume 207, No. 13
Brief Definitive Reports
- Therapy-induced selective loss of leukemia-initiating activity in murine adult T cell leukemia
Treatment with a combination of interferon-α and arsenic trioxide ablates leukemia-initiating activity before reducing primary tumor bulk in a murine model of adult T cell leukemia.
- Chemorepulsion by blood S1P regulates osteoclast precursor mobilization and bone remodeling in vivo
Chemotaxis and chemorepulsion of osteoclast precursors depends on S1P concentrations and expression of the receptors S1PR1 and S1PR2, which act to regulate osteoclast precursor localization.
- Interleukin 1 receptor signaling regulates DUBA expression and facilitates Toll-like receptor 9–driven antiinflammatory cytokine production
By dampening DUBA expression, IL-1 receptor signals facilitate TLR9-driven TRAF3 ubiquitination, antiinflammatory cytokine production, and resistance to DSS-induced colitis.
- Promoters, enhancers, and transcription target RAG1 binding during V(D)J recombination
RAG1 binding to TCR gene elements is dictated by transcriptional control elements and by transcription itself; these findings provide direct confirmation of the long-held accessibility model.
- Transient activation of c-MYC expression is critical for efficient platelet generation from human induced pluripotent stem cells
A specific kinetic pattern of c-MYC expression is essential for optimal generation of functional platelets from human induced pluripotent stem cells.
- Erythropoietin protects against diabetes through direct effects on pancreatic β cells
In mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, administration of human erythropoietin protects against disease by acting directly on pancreatic β cells.
- Milk sialyllactose influences colitis in mice through selective intestinal bacterial colonization
The presence of particular oligosaccharides in mother’s milk influences bacterial colonization of the newborn mouse intestine and susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate-driven colitis.
- VEGF receptor signaling links inflammation and tumorigenesis in colitis-associated cancer
Inflammation drives expression of VEGFR2, which is expressed on and drives growth of tumor cells in colitis-associated cancer.
- Preferential infection and depletion of Mycobacterium tuberculosis–specific CD4 T cells after HIV-1 infection
HIV-1 preferentially infects M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells due to their increased production of IL-2.
- A peripheral CD4+ T cell precursor for naive, memory, and regulatory T cells
CD4+ T cells expressing very low amounts of CD44 on their surface act as peripheral precursors of a diverse CD4+ T cell pool.
- IL-27 supports germinal center function by enhancing IL-21 production and the function of T follicular helper cells
IL-27 signaling directly into T cells is needed for follicular T helper cell survival, germinal center formation, and the production of T cell–dependent high-affinity antibodies in mice.
- Conserved natural IgM antibodies mediate innate and adaptive immunity against the opportunistic fungus Pneumocystis murina
Natural IgM antibodies in diverse species recognize conserved carbohydrates in fungal cell walls and influence early host defense against Pneumocystis in mice.
- Plasmacytoid dendritic cells sense skin injury and promote wound healing through type I interferons
Cutaneous injury in mice drives transient TLR7- and TLR9-mediated production of type I interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which is required for re-epithelialization of the skin.
- Autoimmune skin inflammation is dependent on plasmacytoid dendritic cell activation by nucleic acids via TLR7 and TLR9
Lupus-prone mice develop a chronic inflammatory response to cutaneous injury that depends on the production of type I interferon, TLR7, and TLR9.
- Plexin-A4–semaphorin 3A signaling is required for Toll-like receptor– and sepsis-induced cytokine storm
Plexin-A4 activity is essential for Toll-like receptor–induced signaling, cytokine production, and inflammation in mice.
- MCP-induced protein 1 deubiquitinates TRAF proteins and negatively regulates JNK and NF-κB signaling
A previously unappreciated deubiquitinase activity of MCP-induced protein 1 contributes to its role in dampening inflammatory signaling.
- Differential regulation of human and murine P-selectin expression and function in vivo
Basal and inducible expression of human P-selectin in transgenic mice differs from that of murine P-selectin, resulting in distinct functions.