October 2010 | Volume 207, No. 11
Brief Definitive Reports
- The innate immune system in host mice targets cells with allogenic mitochondrial DNA
Tumors or embryonic stem cells bearing foreign mitochondrial DNA are rejected by the innate immune system via a mechanism that depends on MyD88.
- Whole-exome sequencing-based discovery of STIM1 deficiency in a child with fatal classic Kaposi sarcoma
Whole-exome sequencing reveals a homozygous splice-site mutation in the gene encoding STIM1 in a child with classic Kaposi sarcoma.
- The surface protein HvgA mediates group B streptococcus hypervirulence and meningeal tropism in neonates
Lethal meningitis triggered by the hypervirulent group B streptococcus clone ST-17 is mediated by a novel surface protein called HvgA.
- A critical role for regulatory T cell–mediated control of inflammation in the absence of commensal microbiota
Removal of regulatory T cells precipitates tissue inflammation and a systemic autoimmune lympho- and myeloproliferative syndrome, even in germ-free mice.
- Helminth secretions induce de novo T cell Foxp3 expression and regulatory function through the TGF-β pathway
The intestinal parasite H. polygyrus secretes a TGF-β–like molecule that induces regulatory T cells, thus suppressing anti-parasitic effector T cell responses by the host.
- Tim3 binding to galectin-9 stimulates antimicrobial immunity
The interaction between Tim3 on Th1 cells and galectin-9 on Mycobacterium tuberculosis–infected macrophages restricts the bacterial growth by stimulating caspase-1–dependent IL-1β secretion.
- Pathogenic virus-specific T cells cause disease during treatment with the calcineurin inhibitor FK506: implications for transplantation
Pathogenic virus-specific T cells can inflict a cytokine storm and lethal disease even in immunosuppressive conditions.
- Age-dependent susceptibility to a viral disease due to decreased natural killer cell numbers and trafficking
Age-related defects in natural killer cell numbers and function underlie the decreased resistance to mousepox infection in aging mice.
- The Vα14 invariant natural killer T cell TCR forces microbial glycolipids and CD1d into a conserved binding mode
The first crystal structures of iNKT cell TCRs bound to complexes of CD1d and microbe-derived glycolipids provide insight into the structural basis of iNKT cell microbial antigen recognition.
- Filamin A regulates focal adhesion disassembly and suppresses breast cancer cell migration and invasion
The actin cross-linking protein filamin A reduces migration, invasion, and metastasis of breast cancer cells.
- HIF-1α regulates function and differentiation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment
The hypoxic environment of tumors dictates the phenotype of local myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) via HIF-1a expression; hypoxia converts splenic MDSCs from specific into nonspecific suppressors.
- Macrophage-dependent nitric oxide expression regulates tumor cell detachment and metastasis after IL-2/anti-CD40 immunotherapy
Immunotherapy with IL-2 and anti-CD40 induces the expression of NOS2 in tumor-associated macrophages, and its expression is required for the inhibition of tumor metastasis.
- Bystander killing of cancer requires the cooperation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during the effector phase
Killing of nonmalignant stroma requires cooperation between CD4+ and CD8+ T cells during the effector phase in the tumor microenvironment.
- A novel subset of CD4+ TH2 memory/effector cells that produce inflammatory IL-17 cytokine and promote the exacerbation of chronic allergic asthma
Memory CD4+ T cells that produce both Th2 and Th17 cytokines are increased in the blood of patients with atopic asthma and in the lungs of asthmatic mice, where they contribute to inflammation.
- STAT6-mediated displacement of polycomb by trithorax complex establishes long-term maintenance of GATA3 expression in T helper type 2 cells
Trithorax group complex is needed for initiation as well as maintenance of GATA3 gene expression in Th2 cells.
- Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 activity is required for T cell activation and induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 drives T cell activation and disease in EAE in part by regulating the actin binding protein coronin 1a.