The spectrum of the anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) neutralizing immune response has been analyzed by the production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the viral envelope glycoproteins, gp41 and gp120. Little is known, however, about the neutralization mechanism of these antibodies. Here we show that the binding of a group of neutralizing mAbs that react with regions of the gp120 molecule associated with and including the V2 and V3 loops, the C4 domain and supporting structures, induce the dissociation of gp120 from gp41 on cells infected with the T cell line-adapted HIV-1 molecular clone Hx10. Similar to soluble receptor-induced dissociation of gp120 from gp41, the antibody-induced dissociation is dose- and time-dependent. By contrast, mAbs binding to discontinuous epitopes overlapping the CD4 binding site do not induce gp120 dissociation, implying that mAb induced conformational changes in gp120 are epitope specific, and that HIV neutralization probably involves several mechanisms.