A novel CC chemokine, HCC-1, was isolated from the hemofiltrate of patients with chronic renal failure. HCC-1 has a relative molecular mass of 8,673 and consists of 74 amino acids including four cysteines linked to disulfide bonds. HCC-1 cDNA was cloned from human bone marrow and shown to code for the mature protein plus a putative 19-residue leader sequence. Mature HCC-1 has sequence identity of 46% with macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta, and 29-37% with the other human CC chemokines. Unlike MIP-1 alpha and the other CC chemokines, HCC-1 is expressed constitutively in several normal tissues (spleen, liver, skeletal and heart muscle, gut, and bone marrow), and is present at high concentrations (1-80 nM) in plasma. HCC-1 has weak activities on human monocytes and acts via receptors that also recognize MIP-1 alpha. It induced intracellular Ca2+ changes and enzyme release, but no chemotaxis, at concentrations of 100-1,000 nM, and was inactive on T lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophil leukocytes. In addition, HCC-1 enhanced the proliferation of CD34+ myeloid progenitor cells. It was as effective as MIP-1 alpha, but about 100-fold less potent.