Peptide MAGE-1.A1 is a nonamer derived from protein MAGE-1 that can associate with the HLA-A1 molecule. It was shown previously to be recognized by an antitumor cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone derived from the blood of melanoma patient MZ2. We derived two other anti-MAGE-1.A1 CTL clones from different blood samples of the same patient and compared the fine specificity of recognition of the three CTL by testing them on variant MAGE-1.A1 peptides incorporating different amino acid substitutions. The epitopes recognized by the CTL proved to be different. While modifications of residues at positions 5, 6, or 7 in the antigenic peptide affected recognition by the three CTL, each of the modifications of residues at positions 1, 4, or 8 affected recognition by one CTL only. The sequences of both the alpha and beta chains of the T cell antigen receptor of the three CTL were completely different. The results indicate a long-lasting diversity in terms of fine specificity and of T cell antigen receptor structure in the repertoire of antitumor CTL derived from the blood of a melanoma patient and directed against a defined tumor antigen.