Human interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), a member of the alpha chemokine family, inhibits bone marrow colony formation, has antitumor activity in vivo, is chemoattractant for human monocytes and T cells, and promotes T cell adhesion to endothelial cells. Here we report that IP-10 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo. IP-10 profoundly inhibited basic fibroblast growth factor-induced neovascularization of Matrigel (prepared by H. K. Kleinman) injected subcutaneously into athymic mice. In addition, IP-10, in a dose-dependent fashion, suppressed endothelial cell differentiation into tubular capillary structures in vitro. IP-10 had no effect on endothelial cell growth, attachment, and migration as assayed in vitro. These results document an important biological property of IP-10 and raise the possibility that IP-10 may participate in the regulation of angiogenesis during inflammation and tumorigenesis.