Necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis (NCGN) is frequently associated with circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA). It is established that ANCA are specific for soluble enzymes of granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN), such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) or protease 3 (PR3). The purpose of this study was to identify membrane proteins of PMNs, and/or glomerular cells, as additional autoantigenic ANCA targets. When membrane protein fractions were prepared from PMNs and isolated human glomeruli, and immunoblotted with ANCA sera of NCGN patients, two bands with apparent molecular masses of 170 and 80-110 kD (gp170/80-110) were labeled in PMNs, and a 130-kD glycoprotein (gp130) in glomeruli. Gp130 was purified, and monoclonal and rabbit antibodies (Abs) were produced which showed the same double specificity as the patient's ANCA. Using these probes, evidence was provided that gp170/80-110 is identical with human lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (h-lamp-2), because both proteins were immunologically cross-reactive and screening of a cDNA expression library from human promyelocytic leukemia cells with anti-gp130 Ab yielded a clone derived from h-lamp-2. Gp170/80-110 was localized primarily in granule membranes of resting PMNs, and was translocated to the cell surfaces by activation with FMLP. By contrast, gp130 was localized in the surface membranes of endothelial cells of human glomerular and renal interstitial capillaries, rather than in lysosomes, as found for h-lamp-2. Potential clinical relevance of autoantibodies to gp170/80-110 and gp130 was assessed in a preliminary trial, in which ANCA sera of patients (n = 16) with NCGN were probed with purified or recombinant antigens. Specific reactivity was detected in approximately 90% of cases with active phases of NCGN, and frequently also in combination with autoantibodies specific for PR3 or MPO. Collectively, these data provide evidence that h-lamp-2 in PMNs and a different, structurally related 130-kD membrane protein on the cell surface of renal microvascular endothelial cells are autoantigenic targets for ANCA in patients with active NCGN.