The NADPH-binding site of the respiratory burst oxidase system of neutrophils has been proposed to be either at a cytosolic component or at the beta-subunit of cytochrome b558. In this study, affinity labeling of resting and stimulated membranes, the latter having been assembled by all of the oxidase components from both membrane and cytosol, was carried out using [32P]NADPH dialdehyde (oNADPH). Stimulation of human neutrophils with PMA greatly increased O2(-)-generating activity and caused considerable translocation of the cytosolic components p47phox and p67phox. Nevertheless, PMA stimulation did not produce a labeled band which included positions at 47, 67, and approximately 32 kD. The most intense band reflected a molecular mass of 84 kD regardless of the state of activation, but a labeled band was never found near the beta-subunit (91 kD) of cytochrome b558. This 84-kD protein was further confirmed in neutrophils of 14 patients with gp91phox-deficient X-linked chronic granulomatous disease. These results indicate that the NADPH-binding component is not recruited from the cytosol, and also, that a membranous redox component besides cytochrome b558 must be involved in the NADPH oxidase system.