IP-10 is a member of the -C-X-C-chemokine superfamily of proinflammatory cytokines whose secretion is induced by interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To date no function has been described for IP-10. We have genetically engineered tumor cells to secrete high levels of murine IP-10 and demonstrate that while IP-10 has no effect on the growth of these tumor cells in culture, it elicits a powerful host-mediated antitumor effect in vivo. The IP-10 antitumor response is T lymphocyte dependent, non-cell autonomous, and appears to be mediated by the recruitment of an inflammatory infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, neutrophils, and monocytes. These results document an important biologic property of IP-10 and raise the possibility that some of the T cell-directed effects of IFN-gamma and LPS may be mediated by this chemokine.