B chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) is characterized by the accumulation of slow-dividing and long-lived monoclonal B cells arrested at the intermediate stage of their differentiation. We previously showed that interleukin 4 (IL-4) not only inhibits but also prevents the proliferation of B-CLL cells. We report here that IL-4 protects the B-CLL cells from death by apoptosis (programmed cell death [PCD]). IL-4 inhibits spontaneous and hydrocortisone (HC)-induced PCD of highly purified B cells from 12 unselected CLL patients, as shown by sustained cell viability and lack of DNA fragmentation. IL-1, -2, -3, -5, -6, -7, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and transforming growth factor beta have no protective effect. The in vitro rescue from apoptosis by IL-4 is reflected by an increased expression of Bcl-2 protein, a proto-oncogene directly involved in the prolongation of cell survival in vivo and in vitro. Hence, IL-4-treated B-CLL cells express significantly more Bcl-2 than unstimulated, HC-treated, or fresh B-CLL cells. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of IL-4 into one CLL patient enhances Bcl-2 protein expression in the leukemic B cells. These data may suggest that IL-4 prevents apoptosis of B-CLL cells using a Bcl-2-dependent pathway. Given our recent observations that fresh T cells from B-CLL patients express IL-4 mRNA, we propose that IL-4 has an essential role in the pathogenesis of CLL disease, by preventing both the death and the proliferation of the malignant B cells.