IgG extracted from the sera of African adults immune to malaria were injected intravenously into eight Plasmodium falciparum-infected nonimmune Thai patients. Clinical and parasitological improvement was reproducibly obtained in each case. After the disappearance of the transferred Ig, recrudescent parasites were equally susceptible to the same Ig preparation. High levels of antibodies to most parasite proteins were detected by Western blots in the receivers' sera (taken before transfer) as in the donors' Ig, thus indicating that the difference was qualitative rather than quantitative between donors and receivers. In vitro, the clinically effective Ig had no detectable inhibitory effect on either penetration or intra-erythrocytic development of the parasite. On the contrary, they sometimes increased parasite growth. In contrast, these IgG, as the receivers' Ig collected 4 d after transfer, but not those collected before transfer, proved able to exert an antibody-dependent cellular inhibitory (ADCI) effect in cooperation with normal blood monocytes. Results were consistent among the seven isolates studied in vitro, as with the recrudescent parasites. Thus, the results obtained in the ADCI assay correlate closely with clinical and parasitological observations.