A monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against a synthetic peptide derived from the sequence of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) regulatory protein virion infectivity factor (vif) labeled the surface of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula by indirect immunofluorescence. Western blotting showed that two S. mansoni proteins of 170 and 65 kD were recognized by the mAb. Sera from 20% of S. mansoni-infected HIV-seronegative individuals tested recognized the PS4 peptide in an ELISA as did sera from S. mansoni-infected rats. Sera from individuals seropositive for HIV-1, but without schistosomiasis, that reacted with the vif peptide also recognized a 170-kD S. mansoni protein. This crossreactive S. mansoni antigen appears to be a target of immunity in vivo since passive transfer of the mAb VIF-CD3 to naive rats had a protective effect against a challenge infection with S. mansoni cercariae.