Melanoma growth-stimulatory activity (MGSA), a peptide reported to be mitogenic for Hs294T human melanoma cells, has extensive sequence similarity to the neutrophil-activating peptide NAP-1/IL-8, suggesting functional similarities. To test this hypothesis, MGSA was chemically synthesized and tested for its effects on human neutrophils. It was found to induce chemotaxis, exocytosis of elastase, and changes in cytosolic-free calcium to an extent and at concentrations similar to NAP-1/IL-8. However, MGSA was considerably less potent than NAP-1/IL-8 in inducing the respiratory burst. Intradermal injections in rats of MGSA resulted in a massive accumulation of neutrophils. Our data demonstrate that, apart from its growth-stimulatory activity, MGSA is a potent inflammatory agonist with neutrophil-stimulating properties.