A protein immunochemically related to the eosinophil granule major basic protein (gMBP) is found in increased concentration in the plasma of pregnant women and has been localized to placental trophoblasts by immunofluorescence. Pregnancy MBP (pMBP) is indistinguishable from gMBP in its reactivity with polyclonal antisera and a panel of 14 mouse mAbs. We report the purification of pMBP from human placenta by: (a) affinity chromatography over mAb immobilized on Sepharose, (b) gel filtration in 6 M guanidine.HCl buffer, and (c) reversed-phase HPLC. Purified pMBP and gMBP are biochemically indistinguishable in that both: (a) bind to DNA, (b) polymerize and bind to carrier proteins via disulfide linkages, (c) have a molecular weight of 14,000, (d) have isoelectric points greater than 10.6, (e) comigrate in two-dimensional gels, (f) coelute during reversed-phase HPLC on C18 columns, (g) have identical peptide maps after three different digestions, and (h) have partial amino acid sequence identity. This physicochemical identity has important implications as to the role of pMBP in human placentation.