From the peripheral blood of the melanoma patient (AV), we derived cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones that lysed the autologous tumor line SK-MEL-29, but not autologous EBV-B cells, K562, and other tumor targets. By immunoselection experiments it was shown that the CTL clones recognized at least three different antigens on the autologous tumor cells. We demonstrate here that these melanoma antigens are presented to the CTL in association with HLA-A2. First, HLA-A2-reactive pregnancy sera as well as an mAb against HLA-A2 inhibited the CTL lysis. Second, immunoselected melanoma subclones that were resistant to lysis by CTL clones against the three antigens described were found to lack expression of HLA-A2. By sensitizing the patient's lymphocytes against an HLA-A2- melanoma clone, we established a new series of CTL clones recognizing autologous AV melanoma cells. However, efficient lysis was only seen when target cells were pretreated with IFN-gamma. The lytic activity of these CTL was selectively inhibited by an mAb against a common HLA-B determinant. These results indicate that in addition to HLA-A2, other class I antigens are involved in the recognition of AV melanoma cells by autologous CTL.