Isogenic mutant strains of V. cholerae O1 lacking elements of a genetic regulon controlled by toxR and implicated in virulence were tested in volunteers. A deletion mutation in ctxA, the gene encoding the A subunit of cholera toxin, markedly attenuated disease symptoms without affecting intestinal colonization. Deletion of toxR, the gene encoding the cholera toxin-positive regulatory protein resulted in a diminution in colonizing capacity. A deletion mutation in tcpA, encoding the major subunit of the toxin coregulated pilus (regulated by toxR), abolished the colonizing capacity of this strain. These results show for the first time the role of a specific pilus structure in colonization of the human intestine by V. cholerae O1 and exemplify the significance of a genetic regulon in pathogenesis.