The cDNA coding for human monocyte-derived neutrophil-specific chemotactic factor (MDNCF) was cloned from LPS-stimulated human monocyte mRNA. The cDNA sequence codes for a polypeptide consisting of 99 amino acids, including a putative signal sequence. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of natural MDNCF shows that the mature functional protein comprises 72 amino acids, beginning with serine at residue 28. The deduced amino acid sequence shows striking similarity to several platelet-derived factors, a v-src-induced protein, a growth-regulated gene product (gro), and an IFN-gamma inducible protein. The availability of the MDNCF cDNA enabled us to use it as a probe to identify inducers of MDNCF mRNA expression in human PBMC. MDNCF mRNA was increased greater than 10-fold within 1 h after stimulation with LPS, IL-1, or TNF, but not by IFN-gamma, IFN-alpha, or IL-2. Furthermore, we also determined that LPS, IL-1, and TNF stimulated the mononuclear cells to produce biologically active MDNCF. This observation may account for the in vivo capacity of IL-1 and TNF to induce netrophil infiltrates.