M protein was purified to homogeneity from limited pepsin digests of intact type 19 streptococci (pep M19). The purified pep M19 when emulsified in CFA and injected into rabbits evoked type-specific and crossreactive opsonic antibodies, as well as heart-crossreactive antibodies. The NH2-terminal primary structure of pep M19 was determined and a peptide copying the first 24 amino acids [SM19(1-24)C] was chemically synthesized. Rabbits that were immunized with the unconjugated peptide developed antibodies that recognized the native pep M19, as determined by ELISA, and opsonic antibodies against type 19 streptococci, as determined by in vitro opsonophagocytosis tests. The synthetic peptide also evoked antibodies that crossreacted with a 60-kD sarcolemmal membrane protein of human myocardium. By using overlapping synthetic subpeptides as immunoinhibitors, the opsonic and heart-crossreactive epitopes of SM19(1-24)C were localized to SM19(11-24)C. Our data confirm the presence of heart-crossreactive epitopes within the primary structure of pep M19 and show that these potentially harmful autoimmune epitopes may be located in the NH2-terminal regions of certain M proteins. We conclude that continued efforts to identify the primary structures of protective and heart-crossreactive epitopes will be necessary to elucidate the pathogenesis of acute rheumatic heart disease and to develop safe and effective streptococcal vaccines.