Purified group A streptococcal M proteins were used to stimulate peripheral blood lymphocytes from normal adult volunteers. The activated lymphocytes were cytotoxic against cultured human heart cells, as well as liver cells, fibroblasts, and K562 cells, but showed only minimal cytotoxicity against several animal cell types. The cytotoxic activity evoked by type 5 M protein was dose and time dependent. Rabbit antisera against pep M5 that contained heart-crossreactive antibodies partially inhibited cytotoxicity against heart cells, but had no effect on other target cells, suggesting that a fraction of the effector lymphocytes may be recognizing M protein-crossreactive cell surface antigens. All of the cytotoxic activity was recovered from a CD3+ population of lymphocytes obtained from a fluorescence-activated cell sorter, and CD4+ and CD8+ cells were also cytotoxic. M protein-responsive T cell clones were generated that showed specificity for heart and K562 cells, in addition to clones that were cytotoxic against both cell lines. Our data show that streptococcal M protein evokes cytotoxic T lymphocytes against multiple human but not animal target cells. Some of the effector cells may be specific for cultured myocardial cells, but their role in the pathogenesis of rheumatic carditis will require further studies of lymphocytes from patients with acute rheumatic fever and carditis.