Macrophages play a crucial role in the defense against tumors and parasites. Activation of tumoricidal and microbicidal effector mechanisms requires stimulation of macrophages with macrophage-activating factors (MAF). One such MAF is interferon γ (IFN-γ). In some assays, substantial activity of IFN-γ on murine macrophages, however, is only observed in synergy with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or other cytokines (1). In addition, certain cytokines have been shown to induce monocyte or macrophage activation in the absence of IFN-γ (2-5). We previously described lymphokines in the supernatant of a murine T cell clone that synergized with IFN-γ in the induction of tumoricidal and schistosomulicidal murine macrophages (1). We called this lymphokine(s) macrophage cytotoxicityinducing factor 2 (MCIF2)(1). A candidate for MCIF2 was lymphotoxin (LT), because the T cell clone supernatant contained high amounts of LT. LT is functionally homologous and structurally related to the macrophage product tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Therefore, we tested whether recombinant (r) LT or rTNF can function as MAF. We report here that rLT or rTNF synergize with rIFN-γ in the induction of tumoricidal and schistosomulicidal murine macrophages.