Mtf, a cytoplasmic, probably mitochondrial factor, controls Mta polymorphism. We tested for dominance between two forms of Mtf to determine whether Mta is controlled by positive or negative genetic mechanisms. We fused Mtf-disparate cells containing distinct mtDNA markers and selected for hybrids containing both. Such mtDNA heteroplasmons codominantly and stably express alternative Mta antigens. Stable codominance excludes negative genetic mechanisms as well as a model of induced nuclear compensation, and implies Mtf controls Mta expression through a positive genetic mechanism.