The specificities of an extensive panel of anti-H-2Dd monoclonal antibodies, which had been previously characterized using exon-shuffled H-2Dd/H-2Ld molecules and a number of anti-H-2DP antibodies, were examined using H-2Dd/H-2DP recombinants. The use of this new family of recombinant antigens revealed extensive interaction between the membrane-distal (N and Cl) domains of class I molecules. 20 out of 48 mAbs recognize complex epitopes formed by the interaction of these two domains. These antibodies exhibit a number of distinct patterns of crossreactivity with other class I proteins, revealing the presence of multiple epitopes within the region of domain interaction. Comparison of the data presented here with those from previous work allowed the identification of a small number of residues in the Cl domain that participate in the generation of complex epitopes involving both the N and Cl domains. The results are discussed in terms of the structural information available for these two domains.