Pregnancy results in an elevation in serum and tissue concentrations of the mononuclear phagocytic growth factor, CSF-1 (colony-stimulating factor 1). These increases are associated with an increase in the number of monocytes in the circulation, and with increases in the number of splenic macrophage precursors. In contrast to the approximately 2-fold elevation of the CSF-1 concentrations in serum and most tissues, pregnancy results in a 1,000-fold increase in the concentration of uterine CSF-1. The roughly fivefold elevation in uterine CSF-1 concentration observed at day 5 of pregnancy could be mimicked by administration of chorionic gonadotrophin in intact but not ovariectomized mice. These dramatic changes in uterine CSF-1 concentrations may indicate a role for CSF-1 in the regulation of nonmononuclear phagocytic cell types.