The mitogenic effects of isotypically diverse antibodies to the T3 molecule were examined in genetically diverse population groups. Whereas the OKT3 antibody (IgG2a) was mitogenic for blood mononuclear cells from all individuals tested, the 38.1 antibody (IgM) was consistently nonmitogenic. In contrast, studies of the mitogenic effects of the Leu-4 antibody (IgG1) revealed striking ethnic differences. More than 80% of Caucasians and Negroes were good Leu-4 responders, whereas most individuals of Asian origin, including Indian, Japanese, and Chinese, were either Leu-4 nonresponders or Leu-4 low responders. However, the majority of American Indians, as well as a significant minority of Chinese, were good responders. Cell separation studies confirmed that monocytes govern the different mitogenic effects of the anti-T3 antibodies. The results reveal interesting ethnic differences in monocyte accessory function probably mediated via the Fc-gamma receptor, in the stimulation of T lymphocytes by an IgG1 antibody against the T3 molecule.