The expression of T4/T8 surface markers on human T cells and of L3T4/Lyt-2 on murine T cells has lead to the association of these surface markers with recognition of either class II or class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens. It has been suggested that these T cell surface antigens interact with MHC antigens. We have examined the role of L3T4 in the recognition of Dd by the T cell hybridoma, 3DT52.5. This T cell hybridoma was found to be specific for the N/Cl domain of Dd. The recognition of a class I antigen by an Lyt-2-, L3T4+ T cell hybridoma allowed the separate evaluation of interactions between L3T4/Ia and the T cell antigen receptor, Dd. Recognition by this hybridoma resulted in the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and cytolytic activity. Antibody blocking experiments have demonstrated that L3T4 was involved in triggering the effector function of 3DT52.5 only on Ia+ stimulator or target cells. We have demonstrated that an L3T4+, Dd-specific T cell hybridoma, 3DT52.5, uses the L3T4 molecule to directly interact with nonpolymorphic Ia determinants.