Monoclonal antibody 384.5 specifically inhibited cytolysis of P-815 target cells by cloned L3 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effector cells. The lytic activity of other cloned CTL that have other distinct specificities was not affected. Antibody 384.5 did not inhibit the cytolytic activity of bulk populations of C57BL/6 mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) cells. Concanavalin A-facilitated cytolysis by T cell clone L3 but not T cell clone B18 was inhibited by antibody 384.5, whereas phytohemagglutinin-facilitated cytolysis by L3 cells was not strongly inhibited. Antibody 384.5 binds specifically to L3 cells but not to several other T lymphocytes clones, or to a detectable portion of populations of primary MLC cells, normal spleen, thymus, lymph node, or bone marrow cells. In contrast, C57BL/6 anti-B10.A(5R) secondary MLC cells (genetically enriched for reactivity against the H-2Dd region gene products) contained a small population which reacted with the antibody 384.5. The determinant detected by antibody 384.5 was susceptible to trypsin treatment, and was reexpressed after overnight incubation. These results suggest that the monoclonal antibody 384.5 detects an endogenously synthesized clone-specific determinant associated with the cytolytic activity of the L3 CTL clone. These properties make antibody 384.5 an attractive candidate for an antibody that reacts with the antigen-recognition site of a cytolytic T cell antigen receptor.