Purified human blood eosinophils, when incubated in human placental conditioned medium (a source of colony-stimulating factors) [CSF]) demonstrate an enhanced ability to damage antibody- or complement-coated schistosomula. This enhancement represents a 4- to 10-fold increase of eosinophil schistosomicidal ability and a 10-fold lowering of the threshold for antibody or complement required in the killing reaction. The activity that enhances eosinophil cytotoxicity and the eosinophil colony-stimulating activity in the placental conditioned medium are eluted in the same fraction (CSF-alpha) after chromatography on Sephadex G-100 and phenyl-Sepharose columns, suggesting that these two activities might be associated with the same molecule. CSF-alpha enhances the adherence step of the killing reaction: antibody-coated larvae were frequently found covered by several layers of eosinophils in tubes containing CSF-alpha. Such a degree of adherence was rarely seen in control tubes lacking CSF-alpha. This enhancement of the eosinophil adherence is detectable 45-60 min after addition of CSF-alpha to the culture. It is not affected by washing the cells after a short time of preincubation with CSF-alpha, and it occurs in the absence of protein synthesis, whereas colony-stimulating activity requires continuous protein synthesis and ceases when CSF is removed from the culture. Finally, CSF-alpha enhances the temperature-dependent reaction that insures the irreversibility of eosinophil attachment to schistosomula. These observations suggest that eosinopoietic factors could be responsible for some of the modified properties of blood eosinophils in eosinophilic individuals.