T cells alloactivated in 5-d MLC with an HLA-DR-different stimulator acquire the capacity of stimulating the autologous mixed lymphocyte response (AMLR). We have demonstrated that activation of AMLR by allosensitized T cells is determined by the expression of the idiotype receptor for the stimulating HLA-DR alloantigen. This has been shown in experiments in which purified, OKT-3-positive T cell suspensions were first primed for 9 d with AMLR-activated T lymphoblasts, then tested in secondary AMLR with autologous lymphoblasts sensitized to various HLA-DR alloantigens. Accelerated memory responses were induced only by autologous lymphoblasts that had been sensitized against the same HLA-DR specificity as the primary AMLR stimulators. This response was not inhibited by a mouse monoclonal antibody recognizing Ia-like determinants, and was not triggered by human allogeneic resting peripheral blood lymphocytes. Thus, recognition of alloactivated T lymphoblasts in secondary AMLR seems to be specific for the idiotype-like determinants expressed by the autologous stimulators.