Spleen cells from mice injected intravenously with syngeneic male germ cells exhibited reduced immune functions as determined by natural killer cell activity, mixed lymphocyte reactivity and cytotoxic lymphocyte (CTL) function. The decrease in CTL responses to trinitrophenyl-modified self (TNP-self) was detected as early as 4 d after sperm injection and was observed to H-2 alloantigens 3 wk after injection. Radiosensitive suppressor T cells were found to suppress the CTL response to TNP-self. Suppression lasted for a period of at least 7 wk after a single inoculation of the germ cells. Some variability in immune suppression capability was observed using different preparations of germ cells which are not yet completely understood. Sperm were more effective in inducing suppression than testicular cells derived from the seminiferous tubules. Furthermore, sperm from older animals were more effective than those from younger mice. These findings are discussed with respect to possible regulatory influences of germ cells on the immune system when the blood-testes barrier is broken.