The chromosomal location of human constant region light chain immunoglobulin (Ig) genes has been determined by analyzing a group of human fibroblast/rodent somatic cell hybrids with nucleic acid probes prepared from cloned human kappa and lambda constant region genes. Human chromosomes in each cell line were identified by isoenzyme analysis. The DNA from hybrid cells was digested with restriction endonucleases, size fractionated by gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose or DBM paper, and hybridized with (32)P-labeled nucleic acid probes. The C(κ) gene was assigned to human chromosome 2 and the C(λ) genes to chromosome 22, based upon analysis of these hybrid cell lines, and these assignments were confirmed by analysis of subclones. A group of previously unassigned loci can be mapped to chromosome 2 by virtue of their close linkage to C(κ). The λ and κ light chain and heavy chain Ig genes have now been assigned to all three human chromosomes that are involved in translocations with chromosome 8 in human B cell neoplasms. These techniques and probes provide a means to study the detailed arrangement of human Ig genes and their pseudogenes.