Mice were bred that simultaneously expressed the mutations nude and x-linked immune deficiency (xid). These doubly deficient animals had less than 10% of normal serum immunoglobulin levels. Their spleen cells did not respond to thymus-independent antigens in vitro nor did they respond to lipopolysaccharide. There was a virtual absence of cells with surface mu, kappa, or lambda 1, as detected by fluorescence. Sections of lymphoid organs revealed an absence of primary B cell follicles. Taken together, these results indicate a lack of mature B cells in nude xid mice. The possibility is considered that mature B cells belong to two subpopulations representing two lineages, one controlled by alleles at the xid locus and the other by alleles at the nude locus.